Related to carcinoma: carcinoma in situbasal cell carcinomasquamous cell carcinomaNasopharyngeal carcinomabronchogenic carcinomaLung carcinoma. Note: This page may contain content that is offensive or inappropriate for some readers.

Pathology any malignant tumour derived from epithelial tissue. Pathology another name for cancer 1. A cancerous growth on the surface of the skin, blood vessels, or other organ or structure. Switch to new thesaurus. Mentioned in?

Renal cell carcinoma

References in periodicals archive? To our knowledge, no comprehensive studies analyzing these relatively new immunohistochemical markers have been performed on cytology fluid specimens in patients with high-grade serous carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma is most common in 6th or 7th decade of life but it is very rare in the younger age and only few cases have been reported. Urothelial carcinoma in children, case report with review of literature.

Forty two cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed during this time were included in the study. The Role of [. Follicular carcinoma is another form of thyroid cancer. Understanding thyroid cancer. Sarcomatoid variant of urothelial carcinoma SVUC of the renal pelvis is a rare tumour with aggressive clinical behaviour [3].

As a result of all these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the case was evaluated as invasive papillary carcinomasolid variant with neuroendocrine differentiation.

Invasive papillary breast carcinoma, solid variant with neuroendocrine differentiation.

Carcinoma in situ: What is stage 0 cancer?

Thanks to frequent body checks and amazing doctors, all is well. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid bed as well as a right paratracheal node came back positive for recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. At that time, he was symptomatic with more fatigue and weight loss. Dictionary browser? Full browser?Carcinoma is a medical term used to describe a malignant or cancerous tumor.

One of the four major types of tumor, carcinoma is the most commonly seen variety in human beings, able to grow nearly anywhere in the body. Some varieties of this tumor can be treated and even removed with the application of radiation, chemotherapydrug therapy, and surgery.

Unfortunately, not all stages and kinds of carcinoma are treatable and it can be fatal in some cases. This type of malignant tumor can arise almost anywhere in the body because it invades epithelial cells.

These cells line most of the surfaces in the body, resting on connective tissue and providing the building blocks for many glands. Epithelial cells are widespread throughout the body, found in the reproductive, urinary, digestive, lymphatic, nervous, and respiratory systems, as well as throughout the skin system, parts of the eyes and nose, and in blood vessels.

If these cells become damaged or mutated in some fashion, a cancerous tumor can form. There are several methods of defining types of carcinoma; since there are so many variations the tumor can take, understanding the differences can be somewhat confusing and contradictory.

Basal cell carcinomas are responsible for many cases of skin cancerresulting from cellular damage due to overexposure to the sun. Squamous cell carcinomas also cause skin cancer, but tend to be more invasive and occur more frequently than basal cell varieties.

Bladder Cancer - Overview (types, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment)

Adenocarcinoma grows in the glands, and may affect many different organs in the body, including the lungs, colon, and reproductive organs. Other types, such as ductal varieties, may originate in the milk production system of females, resulting in breast cancer. Want to automatically save time and money month? Some tumors are classified by their progression and level of invasiveness. Medical professionals may describe the severity of the tumor by its stage, with stage one being the earliest form and stage four generally being the most progressed.

Size, shape, location and the appearance of spreading to other organs help define the stage. Almost all types of this tumor have potential to metastasize, or spread, causing other tumors throughout the body.

Tumors that are caught early are usually aggressively treated to prevent metastasisbut treatment is still possible even after the condition has spread throughout the body.

Although cancer remains a frightening word, advanced medical treatment options do provide some hope for people afflicted with a tumor or other sign of cancer. Surgery, radiation, and drug therapy can all help increase chances of recovery and survival, though these chances are often markedly increased if the tumor is caught early. Although it is not always possible to prevent cancer from occurring, understanding family medical history and having regular medical check-ups and screenings can help catch a carcinoma right away.


Jessica Ellis Last Modified Date: 11 July Carcinoma is a medical term used to describe a malignant or cancerous tumor. Some types of carcinoma may be treated with radiation therapy. Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?To save this word, you'll need to log in. Both prepare for double mastectomies," 25 Oct. Send us feedback. See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near carcinoma carcinological carcinologist carcinology carcinoma carcinomatosis carcinomorphic Carcinonemertes.

Accessed 17 Jul. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for carcinoma carcinoma. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Name that color: orange chartreuse aqua wisteria Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!

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Examples of carcinoma in a Sentence four deaths attributable to carcinoma.Carcinoma is a malignancy that develops from epithelial cells. Carcinomas occur when the DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow uncontrollably and become malignant. As ofno simple and comprehensive classification system has been devised and accepted within the scientific community. There are a large number of rare subtypes of anaplastic, undifferentiated carcinoma.

Some of the more well known include the lesions containing pseudo- sarcomatous components: spindle cell carcinoma containing elongated cells resembling connective tissue cancersgiant cell carcinoma containing huge, bizarre, multinucleated cellsand sarcomatoid carcinoma mixtures of spindle and giant cell carcinoma.

Very rarely, tumors may contain individual components resembling both carcinoma and true sarcomaincluding carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. The term carcinoma has also come to encompass malignant tumors composed of transformed cells whose origin or developmental lineage is unknown see cancer of unknown primary origin ; CUPbut that possess certain specific molecular, cellular, and histological characteristics typical of epithelial cells.

The term carcinoma in situ or CIS is a term for cells that are significantly abnormal but not cancer. Cancer occurs when a single progenitor cell accumulates mutations and other changes in the DNAhistonesand other biochemical compounds that make up the cell's genome.

The cell genome controls the structure of the cell's biochemical components, the biochemical reactions that occur within the cell, and the biological interactions of that cell with other cells.

Certain combinations of mutations in the given progenitor cell ultimately result in that cell also called a cancer stem cell displaying a number of abnormal, malignant cellular properties that, when taken together, are considered characteristic of cancer, including:.

If this process of continuous growth, local invasion, and regional and distant metastasis is not halted via a combination of stimulation of immunological defenses and medical treatment interventions, the end result is that the host suffers a continuously increasing burden of tumor cells throughout the body. Eventually, the tumor burden increasingly interferes with normal biochemical functions carried out by the host's organsand death ultimately ensues.

Carcinoma is but one form of cancer—one composed of cells that have developed the cytological appearance, histological architecture, or molecular characteristics of epithelial cells. The hallmark of a malignant tumor is its tendency to invade and infiltrate local and adjacent structures and, eventually, spread from the site of its origin to non-adjacent regional and distant sites in the body, a process called metastasis.

If unchecked, tumor growth and metastasis eventually creates a tumor burden so great that the host succumbs. Carcinoma metastasizes through both the lymph nodes and the blood. Whole genome sequencing has established the mutation frequency for whole human genomes. The mutation frequency in the whole genome between generations for humans parent to child is about 70 new mutations per generation.

Carcinomas, however, have much higher mutation frequencies. The particular frequency depends on tissue type, whether a mis-match DNA repair deficiency is present, and exposure to DNA damaging agents such as components of tobacco smoke. Tuna and Amos have summarized the mutation frequencies per megabase Mb in some carcinomas, [14] as shown in the table along with the indicated frequencies of mutations per genome.

The likely major underlying cause of mutations in carcinomas is DNA damage. The high frequency of mutations in the total genome within carcinomas suggests that, often, an early carcinogenic alteration may be a deficiency in DNA repair. For instance, mutation rates substantially increase sometimes by fold in cells defective in DNA mismatch repair [16]. A deficiency in DNA repair, itself, can allow DNA damages to accumulate, and error-prone translesion synthesis past some of those damages may give rise to mutations.

In addition, faulty repair of these accumulated DNA damages may give rise to epigenetic alterations or epimutations. Such cells, with both proliferative advantages and one or more DNA repair defects causing a very high mutation ratelikely give rise to the high frequency of total genome mutations seen in carcinomas. In somatic cells, deficiencies in DNA repair sometimes arise by mutations in DNA repair genes, but much more often are due to epigenetic reductions in expression of DNA repair genes.

Carcinomas can be definitively diagnosed through biopsyincluding fine-needle aspiration FNAcore biopsyor subtotal removal of single node. Some carcinomas are named for their or the putative cell of origin, e. Carcinomas are usually staged with Roman numerals.

In some types of carcinomas, Stage 0 carcinoma has been used to describe carcinoma in situand occult carcinomas detectable only via examination of sputum for malignant cells in lung carcinomas. In more recent staging systems, substages a, b, c are becoming more commonly used to better define groups of patients with similar prognosis or treatment options. Carcinoma stage is the variable that has been most consistently and tightly linked to the prognosis of the malignancy.

The criteria for staging can differ dramatically based upon the organ system in which the tumor arises. For example, the colon [20] and bladder cancer [21] staging system relies on depth of invasion, staging of breast carcinoma is more dependent on the size of the tumor, and in renal carcinoma, staging is based on both the size of the tumor and the depth of the tumor invasion into the renal sinus. Carcinoma of the lung has a more complicated staging system, taking into account a number of size and anatomic variables.

Grading of carcinomas refers to the employment of criteria intended to semi-quantify the degree of cellular and tissue maturity seen in the transformed cells relative to the appearance of the normal parent epithelial tissue from which the carcinoma derives.Doctors now argue that too many diseases fall into the carcinoma diagnosis.

Carcinoma of the intestines appears either as cylindrical-cell cancer, as scirrhus, or as gelatinous or colloid cancer. Carcinoma is far more common than sarcoma, and is generally of the squamous-celled variety. When bleeding piles are absent, blood-streaks upon such a stool point to carcinoma. Malignant disease of the kidney takes the form of sarcoma or carcinoma. Carcinoma and sarcoma sometimes grow from the muco-periosteum in the region of the ethmoid.

A malignant tumor in the tissues that make up the skinglandsmucous membranesand lining of organs. If so, see if you can dig up the meanings of these vocab words from the popular novel. Words nearby carcinoma carcinogenesiscarcinogeniccarcinoidcarcinoid syndromecarcinolyticcarcinomacarcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomacarcinoma in situcarcinoma simplexcarcinomatosiscarcinomatous. Words related to carcinoma cystlumpcancerswellingtumorcorruptionmalignancydiseasesicknessbumpsarcomatumefactionneoplasmcankerC.

Example sentences from the Web for carcinoma Doctors now argue that too many diseases fall into the carcinoma diagnosis. II Various. Sixth Edition.

Types of cancer

Alexander Miles. Derived forms of carcinoma carcinomatoid or carcinomatousadjective. An invasive malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue that tends to metastasize to other areas of the body. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. Any of various cancerous tumors that are derived from epithelial tissue of the skin, blood vessels, or other organs and that tend to metastasize to other parts of the body. See also basal cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma. All rights reserved.Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that most often develops on areas of skin exposed to the sun.

This photograph shows a basal cell carcinoma that affects the skin on the lower eyelid. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma begins in the basal cells — a type of cell within the skin that produces new skin cells as old ones die off. Basal cell carcinoma often appears as a slightly transparent bump on the skin, though it can take other forms.

Basal cell carcinoma occurs most often on areas of the skin that are exposed to the sun, such as your head and neck. Most basal cell carcinomas are thought to be caused by long-term exposure to ultraviolet UV radiation from sunlight. Avoiding the sun and using sunscreen may help protect against basal cell carcinoma.

Basal cell carcinoma usually develops on sun-exposed parts of your body, especially your head and neck. Less often, basal cell carcinoma can develop on parts of your body usually protected from the sun, such as the genitals. Basal cell carcinoma appears as a change in the skin, such as a growth or a sore that won't heal. These changes in the skin lesions usually have one of the following characteristics:. Make an appointment with your doctor if you observe changes in the appearance of your skin, such as a new growth, a change in a previous growth or a recurring sore.


Skin cancer begins in the cells that make up the outer layer epidermis of your skin. One type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma begins in the basal cells, which make skin cells that continuously push older cells toward the surface.

As new cells move upward, they become flattened squamous cells, where a skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma can occur. Melanoma, another type of skin cancer, arises in the pigment cells melanocytes. Basal cell carcinoma occurs when one of the skin's basal cells develops a mutation in its DNA.

Basal cells are found at the bottom of the epidermis — the outermost layer of skin. Basal cells produce new skin cells. As new skin cells are produced, they push older cells toward the skin's surface, where the old cells die and are sloughed off.

The process of creating new skin cells is controlled by a basal cell's DNA. The DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The mutation tells the basal cell to multiply rapidly and continue growing when it would normally die. Eventually the accumulating abnormal cells may form a cancerous tumor — the lesion that appears on the skin.

Much of the damage to DNA in basal cells is thought to result from ultraviolet UV radiation found in sunlight and in commercial tanning lamps and tanning beds. But sun exposure doesn't explain skin cancers that develop on skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight. Other factors can contribute to the risk and development of basal cell carcinoma, and the exact cause may in some cases not be clear.

Wear protective clothing. Cover your skin with dark, tightly woven clothing that covers your arms and legs, and a broad-brimmed hat, which provides more protection than does a baseball cap or visor. Some companies also sell protective clothing. A dermatologist can recommend an appropriate brand.Carcinomaa cancerous growth of surface epithelial tissues of the skin, digestive tractblood vessels, and various organs.

Carcinoma cells tend to invade surrounding healthy tissues and give rise to secondary growths metastases distant from the original tumour.

Treating Basal Cell Carcinoma

In addition to the skin and digestive tract, carcinomas may develop in the reproductive tract, mucous membranes, lungs, and other internal organs and glands, including the liver, pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, and prostate.

Cancers of the nervous systemblood, bone, and muscle are not carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are tumours in which the cancerous cells are arranged in the form of glands. Stomach cancers are usually adenocarcinomas, beginning in the glandular cells of the stomach lining. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is also an adenocarcinoma. Prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women are most commonly adenocarcinomas, as are many lung cancers.

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Britannica Quiz. If you become infested with worms, what kind of drug will you need? Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The most common tumour of the renal substance is a carcinoma, renal cell cancer formerly called a hypernephromawhich is a malignant tumour, arising from epithelial cells the cells of the bodily coverings and linings. It was formerly thought to arise from adrenal cortical…. Bleeding may occur from the base of the ulcer. Although basal cell carcinomas are malignant….

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